A watching brief on Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)

This ‘Circular Economy: From Commitments to Action’ watching brief – and WRAP's Food Loss and Waste: From Commitments to Action watching brief – follow our Seven Steps Towards Net Zero report, which outlines seven practical strategies that G7 countries can adopt to reduce consumption-based emissions.

The over-consumption and exploitation of resources is driving climate change, and is unsustainable in the face of the current cost-of-living crisis. It will make it harder for people to afford basic needs and push them into poverty. Our economies will not be able to thrive. 

Adopting a circular approach can reduce demand on natural resources and help to cut global greenhouse gas emissions in end use sectors by up to 70% by 2050. It also makes economic sense. For example, the European Union could have a Gross Value Added net gain of €240 billion by 2030. WRAP's analysis also suggests that a circular economy could generate over 2.5 million jobs (gross) in the period to 2030 across EU-27 regions. 

WRAP has identified five areas where benefits can be realised:

Graphic showing five benefits of circular economy activities.

So far, 133 countries have committed to circular economy principles, but some are lacking clear goals and implementation plans. As of September 2022, only 79 countries have directly committed to adopting a circular economy through their NDCs.

WRAP is calling on all governments to incorporate the circular economy into their NDCs, with ambitious – but realistic – goals and measurable targets.

"Moving to a circular economy will help secure net zero emissions."

Richard Swannell Interim CEO WRAP

Circular economy in action

Israel and the Kingdom of Eswatini are two of the 79 countries to have directly committed to a circular economy through their NDCs.


The Israel Resource Efficiency Center was established by the Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Environmental Protection, as part of the Government’s efforts to reduce waste and emissions at the source. They assist the Israeli manufacturing industry to mitigate climate change and promote a circular economy.

The Kingdom of Eswatini

The Kingdom of Eswatini’s NDC includes contributions on reducing open burning of municipal solid waste, introducing landfill gas recovery in solid waste disposal sites, and overall reducing waste management emissions through a circular economy model.

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